Published byCleopatra Carson Modified over 7 years ago
The interaction of organisms with the environment.
Ecology: The interaction of organisms with the environment.
Population: - all members of a single species in a given location
Community: -only living organisms – all populations together - all living things Ecosystem: - living (organisms) with the non-living (water, soil oxygen, carbon dioxide, sunlight) Abiotic Factor – Not living Biotic Factor - Living
Biosphere: - portion of earth where life exists - composed of numerous ecosystems (earth)
Competition: - two different organisms living in the same environment utilizing the same limited resources will compete (fight) Habitat: - organisms home – where an organism lives Niche: - an organisms role in the environment ****organisms can occupy the same habitat , but not the same niche
These birds are occupying the same habitat but not the same niche
An ecosystem is made up of abiotic and biotic factors.
An ecosystem is self-sustaining if: - constant source of energy - cycling of materials
Abiotic Factors (NON_LIVING):
- physical and chemical factors which affect an organisms ability to survive - the non-living factors - ex. Intensity of light pH levels - range of temperatures - supply of gases - amount of moisture
drought heavy snow extreme cold Limiting Factors (Abiotic or Biotic):
- determine the types of organisms which may exist in an environment - ex: abiotic factors are limiting factors ex. If a body of water’s dissolved oxygen level is low, fish that need higher oxygen levels could suffocate and die. drought heavy snow extreme cold
Carrying Capacity: - maximum size of a population that can be sustained in a given area. - limited resources affect populations: food, water, shelter, etc. - members of a species compete for these things.
Biotic Factors: - all living things that affect the environment
Autotrophs or Producers:
- synthesize their own food (inorganic to organic) - ex. Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Heterotrophs or Consumers:
- cannot synthesize their own food.
Decomposers: -break down organic wastes and dead organisms to simpler ones. (Recycle nutrients in an ecosystem)
Types of Heterotrophs:
1- Saprophytes: heterotrophic plants, fungi and bacteria which live on dead matter.(Decomposers)
2. Herbivores: Plant eating animals
3. Carnivores: Meat eating animals
4. Omnivores: eat both plant and animals
Types of Carnivores: 1. Predators: animals which kill and consume their prey
2. Scavengers: animals that feed on dead prey
Food Chains and Food Webs
Show the pathway of energy through living components Food Chain: - Transfer of energy from green plants through a series of organisms. Shows predator – prey relationships
Food Web: Interacting food chains
Food (Energy) Pyramid:
Producers: (plants) autotrophs – photosynthesis Primary consumers: herbivores Secondary consumers: carnivores **omnivores can be primary or secondary Decomposers: Recycle nutrients in ecosystem (Bacteria & Fungi) **There is a decrease in the overall energy in each level as you move up the food chain, web or pyramid. **There is more energy in the producer level than at the consumer level
least energy most energy producers primary consumers tertiary
secondary consumers primary consumers most energy producers
Food Web/Food Pyramid
Biomass: - amount of organic matter **Total mass of carnivores in a particular ecosystem is less than the total mass of the producers**
Symbiosis: Living together 1. Commensalism: (+,0) one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected Ex. Barnacles on a whale
2. Mutualism: (+,+) both organisms benefit
3. Parasitism: (+, -) parasite benefits at expense of host
ex. Tapeworm, athletes foot
Succession: - Replacement of populations/communities until a stable community is reached – takes a very long time Pioneer Organisms: - First organisms to inhabit a location (lichens & mosses) Climax Community: - Community in which populations remain stable Biodiversity- - wide variety of species - a climax community contains a great deal of biodiversity
Pioneer Organism: - first organisms to inhabit a given location - ex. Lichens & Mosses
Succession of a climax forest
Living things modify the environment one community makes it more suitable for the next Pioneer organisms Climax Forest Climate changes, natural disasters, and human activity can alter this process, but succession will continue and restore the climax community
**Materials are reused**
In a self-sustaining ecosystem, materials must be cycled among the organisms and the abiotic environment **Materials are reused** Carbon-Hydrogen-Oxygen Cycle: - Involves the process of respiration and photosynthesis
2. Water Cycle: - involves photosynthesis, transpiration, evaporation, condensation, precipitation, respiration, and excretion
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