Basic Computer Vocabulary
TERMS TO KNOW PERSONAL COMPUTER CPU BIT & BYTE HARDWARE INPUT & OUTPUT
RAM & ROM STORAGE DEVICE SOFTWARE OPERATING SYSTEM NETWORK
PERSONAL COMPUTERS A personal computer is used by one person at a time. Includes desktop and laptop computers, MP3 players, PDA’s, etc. PC = Microsoft Windows OS (made by IBM, Dell, Gateway...) Mac = Mac OS (made only by Apple)
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)
CPU= computer’s brain The CPU performs calculations and carries out all the instructions you give to your computer CPU speed is measured in: Megahertz (MHz) - millions of CPU cycles per second Gigahertz (GHz) - billions of CPU cylcles per second
BITS & BYTES Computers can only process two numbers: 1 and 0.
A bit is the smallest unit of information, always either a 1 or a 0. Eight bits make a byte 5 page paper = 40 KB (40,000 bytes) Movie on DVD = 5 GB (5 billion bytes)
HARDWARE Hardware is the collection of physical devices that make up your computer system. These devices are also called components.
INPUTS & OUTPUT PORTS Input = user enters information into a computer
Types of Ports: USB Firewire Compact Flash (CF Card) Secure Disk (SD Card) Input = user enters information into a computer Output = computer delivers information back to a user
Hmmm...... Is it an input or output? keyboard mouse printer scanner speakers digital camera Q: What are 3 hardware components that you can see outside the computer and what are 3 components hidden inside the computer?
RAM & ROM A computer mainly uses 2 kinds of memory: RAM or ROM, depending on the task ROM = permanent information, long-term memory RAM = temporary information, short-term memory (erased when computer turns off) RAM computer chips
STORAGE DEVICES Storage devices: * hard drive * flash drive
* CD’s, DVD’s, & Blue-ray * floppy disk A computer stores information in 3 main places: RAM, ROM, or storage device Before you save your work, the data is stored in RAM. When you save a file, you move the information from RAM to a storage device. How is RAM like short-term memory? If you had a 1GB file, where could you store it?
SOFTWARE Types of Software: * web browsers * email * word processing
Software is a set of instructions that makes it possible for your computer to perform tasks. It translates your commands into the language of binary numbers. Software can also be called a program or an application. 3 categories of software: * Operating System (OS) * Application * Utility Types of Software: * web browsers * * word processing * spreadsheet * database * presentation
OPERATING SYSTEMS The operating system controls all the software programs and allows hardware to work properly. Types of operating systems: Microsoft Windows Mac OS Linux Handheld OS (PDA’s MP3’s, Cell Phones, etc. MS-DOS = text interface (“old school” way of input) GUI = graphical user interface that allows for point and click Name 6 types of application software and describe what each one allows you to do. What types of software program controls all the other software on your computer?
Why is it helpful for schools or companies to use a network?
A computer network is a group of computers connected together. Networks allow people to share information and resources such as printers, storage devices, and Internet connections. A network server is a powerful computer that lets users share storage space and applications In a computer network, what do you call the computer that provides shared storage space and applications to other computers? Why is it helpful for schools or companies to use a network?
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