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What Is A Computer System?
A computer system is an electronic device, operating under the control of software, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output). Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.
Devices that comprise a computer system
Monitor (output) Speakers (output) System box Printer (output) Storage devices (CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk) Mouse (input) Scanner (input) Keyboard (input)
What Does A Computer Do? Computers can perform four general operations. Input Process Output Storage
Data and Information All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound. Computers manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report. The information can also be put in computer storage for future use.
Why Is A Computer So Powerful?
It has the ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed. Reliability Accuracy Ability to store huge amounts of data and information. Ability to communicate with other computers.
How Does a Computer Know what to do?
It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a computer program that tells it exactly what to do. Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in memory. Once the program is stored in memory the CPU can start the operation by executing the program instructions one after the other.
What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ?
Input devices Central Processing Unit CPU Memory Output devices Storage devices
Input Devices Keyboard Mouse Microphone Flash drive
The Keyboard The most commonly used input device is the keyboard on which data is entered by manually keying in or typing certain keys. A keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys.
The Mouse Is a pointing device which is used to control the movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to make selections from the screen. A mouse has one to five buttons. The bottom of the mouse is flat and contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse.
The Central Processing Unit
The central processing unit (CPU) contains electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The CPU interprets instructions from software, performs the logical and arithmetic processing operations, and causes the input and output operations to occur. It is considered the “brain” of the computer.
Memory Memory also called Random Access Memory or RAM (temporary memory) is the main memory of the computer. It consists of electronic components that store data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off. Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that is etched on a chip that has start-up directions for your computer. It is permanent memory.
Amount Of RAM In Computers
One kilobyte (K or KB) equals approximately 1,000 memory locations and one megabyte (M or MB) equals approximately one million locations A memory location, or byte, usually stores one character. Therefore, a computer with 8 MB of memory can store approximately 8 million characters. One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information.
Output Devices Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen which is part of the Monitor. The printer produces a hard copy of your output, and the computer screen produces a soft copy of your output.
Storage Devices Auxiliary storage devices are used to store data when they are not being used in memory. The most common types of auxiliary storage used on computers are flash drives, hard disks and CD-ROM drives.
Floppy Disks A floppy disk were a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell.
Structure Of Floppy Disks
Initially Floppy disks were 8-inches wide, they then shrank to 5.25 inches, and today the most widely used folly disks are 3.5 inches wide and can typically store 1.44 megabytes of data. A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means that it used magnetic patterns to store data. Data in floppy disks can be read from and written to.
Hard Disks Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters. The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM). Storage capacites of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte).
Compact Discs A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that is usually 4.75 inch in diameter. A CD-ROM (read only memory), is a compact disc that used the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music. In addition it can contain other types of data such as text, graphics, and video. The capacity of a CD-ROM is 650 MB of data.
Computer Software Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types: Operating system software Application software
Operating System Software
Operating system software tells the computer system how to perform the functions of loading, storing and executing an application and how to transfer data.
Application Software Application Software is what USERS work with and consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are: Word processing Spreadsheet Database Presentation graphics
Word Processing Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents.
Spreadsheets Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.
Database Software Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.
Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer screen.
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