Published bySusanna Waters Modified over 7 years ago
Reported Speech Roll No. 21-25 Presented By:- Class: Ixth “A”
Ravi Upadhyay (Leader Of The Group)
Contents Define. Basic Rules.
Changes. (Like:- Tenses, Time Words, Pronoun, Verb, etc.) Use of “THAT” in Reported Speech. Examples of Reported Speech. Question. Answers.
Define "I'm going to the cinema".
Reported speech (also known as indirect speech) refers to a sentence reporting what someone has said. It is almost always used in spoken English. Reported speech doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too. "I'm going to the cinema". He said he was going to the cinema.
Basic Rules When changing from quoted speech to reported speech, several changes occur. In all sentences, the quotation marks and the comma immediately before the first quotation mark are removed. Next, the word "that" is usually inserted after the reporting verb (say, ask, told, etc.) Then, the subject pronoun is changed so that the meaning of the quote is not changed. Lastly, the tense of the verb is changed, or shifted. She said, "I'm teaching English online." She said she was teaching English online.
Change In Tenses A.Basic tense changes Direct speech Indirect speech
As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right): Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple She said, "It's cold." › Past simple She said it was cold. Present continuous She said, "I'm teaching English online." Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. Present perfect simple She said, "I've been on the web since 1999." Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999.
Present perfect continuous She said, "I've been teaching English for seven years."
› Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years. Past simple She said, "I taught online yesterday." Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday. Past continuous She said, "I was teaching earlier." Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect She said, "The lesson had already started when he arrived." Past perfect NO CHANGE - She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. Past perfect continuous She said, "I'd already been teaching for five minutes." Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE - She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes.
B. Other tense changes Modal verb forms also sometimes change:
Direct speech Indirect speech will She said, "I'll teach English online tomorrow." › would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. can She said, "I can teach English online." could She said she could teach English online. must She said, "I must have a computer to teach English online." had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. shall She said, "What shall we learn today?" should She asked what we should learn today. may She said, "May I open a new browser?" might She asked if she might open a new browser. !Note - There is no change to; could, would, should, might and ought to.
Things are slightly more complicated with imperatives.
positive imperative Shut up! tell + infinitive He told me to shut up. negative imperative Don't do that again! tell + not + infinitive He told me not to do it again. imperatives as requests Please give me some money. ask + infinitive He asked me to give him some money.
Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact)
You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i.e. my name has always been and will always be Lynne Direct speech Indirect speech "My name is Lynne", she said. She said her name was Lynne. or She said her name is Lynne. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event. Direct speech (exact quote) Indirect speech (not exact) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ", she said. She said next week's lesson is on reported speech.
Time and place changes ›
Time and place references often have to change: If the reported sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. now › then today that day here there this that this week that week tomorrow the following day the next day the day after
next week › the following week the next week the week after Yesterday the previous day the day before last week the previous week the week before Ago previously before 2 weeks ago 2 weeks previously 2 weeks before Tonight that night last Saturday the previous Saturday the Saturday before next Saturday the following Saturday the next Saturday the Saturday after that Saturday these those
Examples: I went to the theatre last night. He said he had gone to the theatre the night before. I'm staying here until next week. He said he was staying there until the following week. In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it, you must change the place (here) to the place (there). Example: At work At home "How long have you worked here?" She asked me how long I'd worked there.
Change In Pronoun In reported speech, the pronoun often changes.
For example: Me You "I teach English online." She said she teaches English online. You also need to be careful with personal pronouns. They need to be changed according to the situation. You need to know the context. For example, there is possible confusion when you try to change reported speech to direct speech: She said she'd been waiting for hours (Is she one person or two different people?) I told them they would have to ask permission (Are we talking about two groups of people or only one?)
Change In Verb Do (Present Simple) Am /Is doing (Present Continuous)
Are doing Has / Have done (Present Perfect) Did (Past Simple) Was doing (Past Continuous) Were doing Had gone (Past Perfect) becomes becomes becomes becomes
Use of 'That' in reported speech
In reported speech, the word “that” is often used. He told me that he lived in Greenwich. However, “that” is optional. He told me he lived in Greenwich. !Note – “That” is never used in questions, instead we often use “if”. He asked me if I would come to the party.
Examples Example 1st Q, “Did you turn off the coffee pot?”
A, I asked Amy if she had turned off the coffee pot. Example 2nd Q, “When did you call?” A, Sharon asked me when I had called. Example 3rd Q, “I want to see that movie.” A, Kim said that she wants to see that movie.
Questions 1. “Please help me carry this”
She asked me ______________________________________. 2. “Please come early” She ______________________________________________. 3. “Please buy some milk” 4. “Could you please open the window?” 5. “Could you bring the book tonight?”
Answers 1. She asked me to help her carry this.
2. She asked me to come early. 3. She asked me to buy some milk. 4. She asked me to open the window. 5. She asked me to bring the book tonight (that night).
Questions 6. “Can you help me with my homework, please?”
She ______________________________________________. 7. “Would you bring me a cup of coffee, please?” 8. “Would you mind passing the salt?” 9. “Would you mind lending me a pencil?” 10. “I was wondering if you could possibly tell me the time?”
Answers 6. She asked me to help her with her homework.
7. She asked me to bring her a cup of coffee. 8. She asked me to pass the salt. 9. She asked me to lend her a pencil. 10. She asked me to tell her the time.
Questions 11. “Do your homework!”
She told me _______________________________________. 12. “Go to bed!” She ______________________________________________. 13. “Don’t be late!” 14. “Don’t smoke!” 15. “Tidy your room!”
Answers 11. She told me to do my homework.
12. She told me to go to bed. 13. She told me not to be late. 14. She told me not to smoke. 15. She told me to tidy my room.
Questions 16. “Wait here!” She ______________________________________________. 17. “Don’t do that!” 18. “Eat your dinner!” 19. “Don’t make a mess!” 20. “Do the washing-up!”
Answers 16. She told me to wait here (there).
17. She told me not to do that. 18. She told me to eat my dinner. 19. She told me not to make a mess. 20. She told me to do the washing-up.
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