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Presentation on theme: "CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF ACCOUNTING Samir K Mahajan."— Presentation transcript:


2 FRAME WORK OF ACCOUNTING Accounting communicates the result of the business transactions in the form of final accounts. With a view to make the accounting results understood in the same sense by all interested parties, certain accounting assumptions, concepts and principles have been developed over a course of period. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) refer to the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction; generally known as accounting standards or standard accounting practice. These include the standards, conventions, and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statements. Frame Work of Accounting Includes o Assumptions o Concepts o Modifying Principles Samir K Mahajan

3 ACCOUNTING ASSUMPTIONS The basic assumptions of accounting are like the foundation pillars on which the structure of accounting is based. The four basic assumptions are as follows Accounting Entity Assumption: According to this assumption, business is treated as a unit or entity apart from its owners, creditors and others. In other words, the proprietor of a business concern is always considered to be separate and distinct from the business which he controls. All the business transactions are recorded in the books of accounts from the view point of the business. Even the proprietor is treated as a creditor to the extent of his capital. Money Measurement Assumption: In accounting, only those business transactions and events which are of financial nature are recorded. For example, when Sales Manager is not on good terms with Production Manager, the business is bound to suffer. This fact will not be recorded, because it cannot be measured in terms of money. Accounting Period Assumption: The users of financial statements need periodical reports to know the operational result and the financial position of the business concern. Hence it becomes necessary to close the accounts at regular intervals. Usually a period of 365 days or 52 weeks or 1 year is considered as the accounting period. Going Concern Assumption: As per this assumption, the business will exist for a long period and transactions are recorded from this point of view. There is neither the intention nor the necessity to wind up the business in the foreseeable future. Samir K Mahajan

4 BASIC CONCEPTS OF ACCOUNTING These concepts guide how business transactions are reported. On the basis of the above four assumptions the following concepts (principles) of accounting have been developed. Dual Aspect Concept: Dual aspect principle is the basis for Double Entry System of book-keeping. All business transactions recorded in accounts have two aspects - receiving benefit and giving benefit. For example, when a business acquires an asset (receiving of benefit) it must pay cash (giving of benefit). Revenue Realisation Concept: According to this concept, revenue is considered as the income earned on the date when it is realised. Unearned or unrealised revenue should not be taken into account. The realisation concept is vital for determining income pertaining to an accounting period. It avoids the possibility of inflating incomes and profits. Historical Cost Concept: Under this concept, assets are recorded at the price paid to acquire them and this cost is the basis for all subsequent accounting for the asset. For example, if a piece of land is purchased for Rs.5,00,000 and its market value is Rs.8,00,000 at the time of preparing final accounts the land value is recorded only for Rs.5,00,000. Thus, the balance sheet does not indicate the price at which the asset could be sold for. Samir K Mahajan

5 BASIC CONCEPTS OF ACCOUNTING contd. Matching Concept: Matching the revenues earned during an accounting period with the cost associated with the period to ascertain the result of the business concern is called the matching concept. It is the basis for finding accurate profit for a period which can be safely distributed to the owners. Full Disclosure Concept: Accounting statements should disclose fully and completely all the significant information. Based on this, decisions can be taken by various interested parties. It involves proper classification and explanations of accounting information which are published in the financial statements. Verifiable and Objective Evidence Concept: This principle requires that each recorded business transactions in the books of accounts should have an adequate evidence to support it. For example, cash receipt for payments made. The documentary evidence of transactions should be free from any bias. As accounting records are based on documentary evidence which are capable of verification, it is universally acceptable. Samir K Mahajan

6 MODIFYING PRINCIPLES To make the accounting information useful to various interested parties, the basic assumptions and concepts discussed earlier have been modified. These modifying principles are as under. Cost Benefit Principle: This modifying principle states that the cost of applying a principle should not be more than the benefit derived from it. If the cost is more than the benefit then that principle should be modified. Materiality Principle: The materiality principle requires all relatively relevant information should be disclosed in the financial statements. Unimportant and immaterial information are either left out or merged with other items. Consistency Principle: The aim of consistency principle is to preserve the comparability of financial statements. The rules, practices, concepts and principles used in accounting should be continuously observed and applied year after year. Comparisons of financial results of the business among different accounting period can be significant and meaningful only when consistent practices were followed in ascertaining them. For example, depreciation of assets can be provided under different methods, whichever method is followed, it should be followed regularly. Prudence (Conservatism) Principle: Prudence principle takes into consideration all prospective losses but leaves all prospective profits. The essence of this principle is “anticipate no profit and provide for all possible losses”. For example, while valuing stock in trade, market price or cost price whichever is less is considered. Samir K Mahajan

7 ACCOUNTING STANDARDS To promote world-wide uniformity in published accounts, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) has been set up in June 1973 with nine nations as founder members. The purpose of this committee is to formulate and publish in public interest, standards to be observed in the presentation of audited financial statements and to promote their world-wide acceptance and observance. IASC exist to reduce the differences between different countries’ accounting practices. This process of harmonisation will make it easier for the users and preparers of financial statement to operate across international boundaries. In our country, the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has constituted Accounting Standard Board (ASB) in 1977. The ASB has been empowered to formulate and issue accounting standards, that should be followed by all business concerns in India. Samir K Mahajan

8 BASIS OF ACCOUNTING There are tow basis from the point of view of the timing of recognition of revenue and cost. The broad approaches are cash basis and accrual basis. Cash basis: according to cash basis, the cost is to be recognised when it is actually received and paid in cash. The cash basis is adopted when there is doubt regarding realisation of payment. Accounts of professional people and government are prepared on cash basis. Accrual basis: according to accrual basis, revenue and cost are recognised when they occur rather than when theory are actually received and paid in cash. Samir K Mahajan


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