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Revise lecture 8.

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Presentation on theme: "Revise lecture 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revise lecture 8

2 Historical cost accounting
Under historical cost accounting, assets are recorded at the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid, or the fair value of the consideration given for them Liabilities are recorded at the amount of proceeds received in exchange for the obligation.

3 Historical cost accounting
1. Another, similar asset might be purchased. Management need to know the current replacement cost which might have changed substantially since the present asset was purchased at its historical cost. 2. The asset might be sold. Management need to know the amount which would be realised from sale, less any costs involved in disposal, i.e. the NRV. Again this may bear no relationship to historical cost.

4 Historical cost accounting
3. The asset might be used in the business. Management need to estimate the future cash flows arising from the asset and discount these to their present value, i.e. their economic value. Clearly there is no direct link with historical cost in this case.

5 Historical cost accounting
Advantages of historical cost accounting Easy to understand Straightforward to produce Historical cost accounts are objective and free from bias Historical cost values are reliable and original values can be confirmed based on original invoices / accompanying documents Historical cost accounts do not record gain until they are realised

6 Historical cost accounting
Disadvantages of historical cost accounting In periods in which prices change significantly, historical cost accounts have grave deficiencies: Carrying value (CV) of non-current assets is often substantially below current value Stock in the SFP reflects prices at the date of purchase or manufacture rather than those current at the year end

7 Historical cost accounting
3. Income statement expenses do not reflect the current value of assets consumed so profit in real terms is exaggerated 4. No account is taken of the effect of increasing prices on monetary items 5. The overstatement of profits and the understatement of assets prevent a meaningful calculation of return on capital employed (ROCE)

8 Alternative to historical cost accounting

9 Alternative to historical cost accounting
The alternative to historical cost accounting is a form of current value accounting, either: Constant purchasing power (CPP) or Current cost accounting (CCA)

10 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Constant purchasing power accounting Accounts figures are adjusted to show all figures in terms of money with the same purchasing power A general price index is used for this Figures in the IS and SFP are adjusted by the CPP factor CPP factor = Index at the reporting date / Index at the date of entry in accounts

11 Alternative to historical cost accounting
In converting the figures in the basic historical cost accounts into those in the CPP statement, a distinction is drawn between: Monetary items Non-monetary items

12 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Monetary items Are those whose amounts are fixed by contract or otherwise in terms of numbers of dollars, regardless of change in general price level. Examples of monetary items are cash, receivable, payables and loan capital

13 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Holders of monetary asset lose general purchasing power during a period of inflation to the extent that any income from the assets does not adequately compensate for the loss in purchasing power. The converse applies to those having monetary liabilities

14 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Non-monetary items Include such assets an stock and non-current assets. Retaining the historical cost concept requires that holders of non-monetary assets are assumed neither to gain nor to lose purchasing power reason only of changes in the purchasing power of the unit of currency The owners of the company’s equity capital have the residual claim on its net monetary and non-monetary assets. The equity interest is therefore neither a monetary nor a non-monetary item.

15 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Advantages of CPP accounting CPP accounting is both simple and objective. It relies on the standard index It adjusts for changes in the unit of measurement and therefore is a true system of inflation accounting It measures the impact on the company in terms of shareholders purchasing power

16 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Disadvantages of CPP Its fails to capture economic substance when specific and general price movements diverge The unfamiliarity of information stated in terms of current purchasing power units CPP does not show the current values (value to the business) of assets and liabilities The general price index used is not necessarily appropriate for all assets in all businesses

17 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Current cost accounting (CCA) It is based on deprival values or value to the business Stock and non-current assets are valued at deprival value Monetary assets (cash, receivables, payables, loans) are not adjusted Assets are stated at their value to the business Holding gains are eliminated from profit Users will be able to assess the current state or recent performance of the business

18 Alternative to historical cost accounting
Disadvantages of CCA Possibility greater subjectivity and lower reliability than historical cost Lack of familiarity Complexity CCA only adjust values for non-monetary asset not all assets and liabilities

19 Current cost accounting - CCA
Q:Describe the types of business that would be most heavily affected by the replacement of historical cost accounting with a system based on current values.

20 Solution Businesses with the following characteristics will be most heavily affected by the change to current value accounting. 1. Large quantities of stock held for long periods of time, the resulting adjustments will impact heavily on the income statement

21 Solution 2. High levels of non-current assets acquired a long time ago, the resulting depreciation adjustment will adversely affect profit 3. Large reserves of monetary assets, a charge is made to the income statement to reflect their fall in value when prices are rising 4. Large borrowing, a credit is made in the IS to reflect the beneficial effect of holding borrowing in inflationary times.

22 Fair presentation Q: When do financial statements show fair presentation?

23 Solution There is no absolute definition of fair presentation (known as the true and fair view in the UK). It is felt that its meaning evolves over time and with changes in generally accepted accounting practice (GAAP)

24 Solution Financial statements will generally show a fair presentation when: They conform with accounting standards They conform with the any relevant legal requirements They have applied the qualitative characteristics from the framework

25 True and fair override IAS 1 states that an entity whose FS comply IFRSs should disclose that. However in extremely rare circumstances management may conclude that compliance with an IFRSs or interpretation would be misleading In this case an entity should depart from the requirement of the standard provided the relevant regulatory framework permits such departure.

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