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Secants and Tangents Lesson 10.4 A B T

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A B A secant is a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. (Every secant contains a chord of the circle.) T A tangent is a line that intersects a circle at exactly one point. This point is called the point of tangency or point of contact.

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T T Postulate: A tangent line is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact. Postulate: If a line is perpendicular to a radius at its outer endpoint, then it is tangent to the circle. Tangent lines.

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Secant and Tangent Segments A tangent segment is a point of a tangent line between the point of contact and a point outside the circle. A secant segment is the part of a secant line that joins a point outside the circle to the farther intersection point of the secant and the circle. T B Tangent segment A B RAR is the secant segment.

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The external part of a secant segment is the part of a secant line that joins the outside point to the nearer intersection point. A B R BR is the external part.

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Theorem 85: If two tangent segments are drawn to a circle from an external point, then those segments are congruent. (Two-Tangent Theorem) O A C B

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Tangent Circles Tangent circles are circles that intersect each other at exactly one point. Two circles are externally tangent if each of the tangent circles lies outside the other. Two circles are internally tangent if one of the tangent circles lies inside the other. The point of contact lies on the line of centers. PQ PQ P Q

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Common Tangents: PQ is the line of center XY is a common internal tangent. AB is a common external tangent. Definition: A common tangent is a line tangent to two circles (not necessarily at the same point.) Such a tangent is a common internal tangent if it lies between the circles(intersects the segment joining the centers) or a common external tangent if it is not between the circles (does not intersect the segment joining the centers.) A B Y P Q X

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In practice, we will frequently refer to a segment as a common tangent if it lies on a common tangent and its endpoints are the tangent’s points of contact. In the diagram for example, XY can be called a common internal tangent and AB can be called a common external tangent. A B Y P Q X

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1.Draw the segment joining the centers. 2.Draw the radii to the points of contact. 3.Through the center of the smaller circle, draw a line parallel to the common tangent. 4.Observe that this line will intersect the radius of the larger circle (extended if necessary) to form a rectangle and a right triangle. 5.Use the Pythagorean Theorem and properties of a rectangle.

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Problem #1 A circle with a radius of 8 cm is externally tangent to a circle with a radius of 18 cm. Find the length of a common external tangent.

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1.Draw the segment joining the centers. 2.Draw the radii to the points of contact. 3.Through the center of the smaller circle, draw a line parallel to the common tangent. 4.Use the Pythagorean Theorem and properties of a rectangle to solve. 5.In ΔRPQ, (QR) 2 + (RP) 2 = (PQ) 2 1.10 2 + (RP) 2 = 26 2 2.RP = 24 6.AB = 24 cm 818 R

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Problem #2 Given: Each side of quadrilateral ABCD is a tangent to the circle. AB = 10, BC = 15, AD = 18. Find CD. D C B A Let BE = x and “walk around” the figure using the given information and the Two- Tangent Theorem. E x 10 - x x 15 - x 10 - x 15 - x 18 – (10 – x ) CD = 15 – x + 18 – (10 – x) = 15 – x + 18 – 10 + x = 23

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